The project management processes are presented as discrete elements with well-defined interfaces.
However, in practice, they overlap and interact in ways that are not completely detailed here.
Most experienced project management practitioners recognize there is more than one way to manage a project.
The required Process Groups and their constituent processes are guides for applying appropriate project management knowledge and skills during the project.
The application of the project management processes is iterative, and many processes are repeated during the project.
The integrative nature of project management requires the Monitoring and Controlling Process Group to interact with the other Process Groups.
In addition, since management of a project is a finite effort, the Initiating Process Group begins the project, and the Closing Process Group ends it.
Project Management Process Groups are linked by the outputs they produce.
The Process Groups are seldom either discrete or one-time event; they are overlapping activities that occur throughout the project.
The output of one process generally becomes an input to another process, or is a deliverable of the project.
The Planning Process Group provides the Executing Process Group with the project management plan and project documents, and, as the project progresses, it often entails updates to the project management plan and the project documents.
2. Scope Management Knowledge Area:
Project Scope Management focuses on identifying the work required, and only the work required to complete the project successfully.
If this phrase looks familiar to us, it should because it's the definition of the project scope statement.
Though there is a relationship between the product scope and the project scope, Scope Management deals only with the project scope since the product scope is outside the project management boundaries.
This doesn't mean that the project manager should ignore the product scope –on the contrary, if a product scope doesn't exist or is deficient, it's up to the project manager and team to develop one.
This knowledge area also ensures that the completed deliverables adhere to the project scope and are formally accepted by the customer.
3. Time Management Knowledge Area:
Project Time Management includes the processes necessary to construct and control the project schedule and complete the project on an agreed-upon timeline.
The time management processes must occur at least once on every project and may also occur for each project phase.
Since an accurate schedule depends upon other data, there are processes within Project Time Management whose outputs are concerned with activity definition, sequencing, resource estimating, and duration estimates.
These provide direct inputs to the Schedule Development process.
4. Cost Management Knowledge Area:
Processes in Project Cost Management are focused on planning, estimating, budgeting, and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within its approved budget.
In some projects, the Cost Estimating and Cost Budgeting processes may be approached as one process because they are so tightly linked.
The Cost Control process contains several formulas that are used for performance measurement and forecasting.
5. Quality Management Knowledge Area:
Project Quality Management is about ensuring that the deliverables meet the requirements for which the project was undertaken.
Project Quality Management is compatible with both the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and proprietary quality approaches, such as Total Quality Management (TQM) and Six Sigma, and common themes in this knowledge area are customer satisfaction, prevention over inspection, and continuous improvement.
6. Human Resource Management Knowledge Area:
Project Human Resource Management deals with the processes and activities to organize, manage, and build the project team.
The project manager has the ultimate responsibility to ensure the project is successful, but he or she can only succeed with the active involvement of the project team in planning, decision making, and of course executing activities.
This knowledge area encompasses several organizational behavioral theories involving team building, motivation, and team performance.
7. Communications Management Knowledge Area:
Project Communications Management provides processes for communication planning, information distribution, performance reporting, and managing stakeholders.
Each of these processes will occur at least once for the project and may also occur for project phases. We know that effective communication is critical to help ensure a successful project.
Activities in this knowledge area make sure that the information and communication needs of stakeholders are planned for, and that project information, including status, progress, and forecasting, is made available in a timely manner.
A key activity in this knowledge area is managing communications to satisfy the needs and resolve issues with project stakeholders.
8. Risk Management Knowledge Area:
Project Risk Management ensures that risks are identified, analyzed, plans established, and managed.
Risks are uncertain events that impact one or more of the project objectives. The objectives of risk management processes are to decrease the probability and impact of negative events and increase the probability and impact of positive risk events.
Each risk process occurs once for every project and may be done for each project phases. However, just as with other knowledge areas, the likelihood is that risk processes will reoccur throughout the entire project life cycle.
9. Procurement Management Knowledge Area:
Project Procurement Management includes make-or-buy analysis, purchasing, vendor selection, contract administration, and contract management activities.
Many projects require outside products, services, or other resources outside of the project team.